Minimize Cyanoliseus patagonus

Carolina Conure (extinct)

Conuropsis carolinensis


Conuropsis c. carolinensis

Conuropssis c. ludovicianus




Conuropsis carolinensis carolinesis was a bird of general green plumage, paler on underparts; forehead, lores, periophthalmic region and upper cheeks orange; remainder of head and upper part of neck yellow; scapulars, greater wing-coverts and tertials tinged with olive and margined with greenish-yellow; primary-coverts deep green edged with yellowish-green; outer webs of primaries basally marked with yellow'bend of wing, carpal edge, and thighs yellow, undersides of flight and tail feathers greyish; bill horn-colored; irises brown; legs flesh-brown.

Conuropsis carolinensis ludovicianus was like carolinensis, but green of rump, lower hindneck, and greater wing-coverts, inner secondaries, and basal sections of outer webs of primaries were more extensibely marked with brighter yellow.


 Natural Range

C.c. carolinensis was formerly found in the south-eastern United States from Florida north to sourthern Virginia and occasionally as a visitor to Pennsylvania and possibly New York.

C.c. ludovicianus was formerly distributed thoughout the Mississippi-Missouri drainage in the eastern interior of the United States from the Gulf of Mexico between eastern Texas and Mississippi, or possibly from western Alabama, north to the southern shores fo the Great Lakes from western New York to southern Wisconsin and to eastern Colorado, southern Nebraska, and possibly to South and North Dakota



The tale of the Carolina conure is perhaps one of the saddest and most heart-breaking stories in North American aviculture. A bird of such beauty and grace, that was ubiquitous in most of the area of the United States --one of two psittacines that were native to the United States -- disappeared from the world on February 21, 1918 when Incas, the last carolina conure died in his enclosure at the Cincinnati Zoo. Thus ended the extraordinary existence of a beautiful bird that can be found in accounts of U.S. history and the journals of the early explorers of this continent.

Although it was at one time kept in collections, proper breeding was never carried out.

The complete story behind the disapperance of these parrots will never be known because documentation of their decline was sketchy. There seems little doubt that man and his effects on the environment were reponsible, but the factors directly involved remain something of a mystery.  Greenway points out that during a period of about ninety years the range of Conuropsis gradually contracted from east to west, toward the Mississippi River, and the dates of final records from the varous regions coincide well with the spread of settlement and the destruction of forests. Persistent persecution and destruction of habitat are widely accepted as having been the direct cause of the extirpation of the parrots. However, McKinley (1996) says that it is almost too easy to say that they were such pests of fruit and grain crops that they were relentlessly exterminated. Some have speculated that in addition to the subtle but constant pressures of encroching civilization, the introduction of the european honey bee, which nested in similar constructs as conuropsis was a factor in its disappearance and that the species may have already been in decline.



The Carolina Conure suffered from being common or at least being percieved that way. It was less than enthusiastically persued as a pet bird because they were seen as "just a parakeet", a common bird. Most at the time were interested in non-native species. However, those that did keep them found them to be delightful and devoted companions. There are many stories of the incredibly strong bonds that they formed with humans and each other. Many who kept them allowed them free flight in doors and out as they would never stray too far from their human companions. This same trait proved to be part of their undoing as farmers would use it against them by shooting birds in the flock and waiting for the surviving birds to return to their dead compatriots just to be shot at again.



The Carolina conure bred extremely prolifically in captivity which in part adds to the outright tragedy of their disappearance from this earth. Their nesting habits were like that of many of the aratinga conures. Collection holders would breed birds and practically give away the offspring as they were percieved to have little value. Had the individuals of the time realized in time that the species was in dire straights and if captive breeding in collections around the U.S. would have been made a priority, this extraordinary bird would still be here to delight us all and would no doubt be the devoted companion of many of you reading this paragrah.

Unfortunately Conuropsis Carolinensis is gone forever. Rest in peace Conuropsis. The world is a less colorful place without you.



The Conure Photo Album does not have any photos of the Carolina Conures.



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Date » 28 May, 2015    Copyright 2008 by the International Conure Association Login : Register
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